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# Computer System Architecture

## Introduction To Digital System and Numbering System

A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a mathematical notation for representing a set of numbers by symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the numeral “11” to be …

## What Are The Types of Signals?

Analog Signals An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. It differs from a digital signal …

## What Are The Types of Digital Signals?

Representation of Digital Signals Digital systems do not store numbers the way humans do. A human can remember the number 4.5 and understand that it represents a quantity. The digital system does not have this …

## What is Binary Conversion?

The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix …

## Binary Conversion In Digital System and Numbering System

Binary Conversion Unsigned Binary Counting The simplest form of numeric representation with bits is unsigned binary. When we count upward through the positive integers using decimal, we start with a 0 in the one’s place …

## What is Sampling?

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave (a continuous-time signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete-time …

## What is Hexadecimal Numeral System?

Hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. Its primary purpose is to represent the binary code in …

## What is BCD Numeral System?

Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. Its main virtue is that it allows easy conversion to decimal digits for printing or display …

## What is Gray Codes?

The use of binary counting sequences is common in digital applications. For example, an n-bit binary value can be used to identify the position of a rotating shaft as being within one of 2n different arcs. As …

Basic Concepts behind the Binary System To understand binary numbers, begin by recalling elementary school math. When we first learned about numbers, we were taught that, in the decimal system, things are organized into columns: …

## What is Binary Subtraction?

Binary Subtraction Just as with addition, we’re going to use the decimal numbering system to illustrate the process used in the binary numbering system for subtraction. There are four possible cases of single-bit binary subtraction: 0 …

## What is Floating Point Arithmetic?

Floating Point Arithmetic Binary numbers can also have decimal points, and to show you how, we will once again begin with decimal numbers. For decimal numbers with decimal points, the standard way to represent the digits …

Hexadecimal numbers (base 16) can be added using the same method. The difference is that there are more digits in hexadecimal than there are in decimal. For example, in decimal, adding 5 and 7 results in 2 with …